Celal Bayar University, Turkey
Title: Food processing technologies on food alkaloids and food allergenics: Bioactive and toxicological aspects
Biography: Ozlem Tokusoglu
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain biologically important amine structures and include some related compounds in plants and animal foods. Alkaloids show greatly diverse matrix and origins as well as pharmacological and/or nutraceutical action that often demonstrate a marked physiological action. The only thing that unites all these natural compounds under the term ‘alkaloids’ (alkali-like) is the nitrogen atom that is present in all of them. They are known to be adrenergics, antibiotics,
poisons, stimulants, diuretics, astringents, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensives, anti-mydriatics, analgesics, anti-gout, expectorant, emetic, anti-spasmodic and many others. Food alkaloids can be take part in chemistry, food industrial applications, food supplement and medical drug fortifier. Chemical alkaloid taxonomy in plants and animal foods, originating from protein and aminoacids like this xanthinealkaloids, phenolic based alkaloids, originating from plant cell cultures, pseudoalkaloids, ergot alkaloids and tropane alkaloids in plants and cereals, glycoalkaloids in potatoes, their properties, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical effects. It has been carried out methylxanthine alkaloids including caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in most consumed non-alcoholic beverages such as tea, coffee, cocoa majorly and chocolate and herbal teas as less. Phenolic alkaloids containing piperidine alkaloid from black pepper with pyridine structure and sanguinarine, narceine alkaloids from pomegranate fruits with isoquinoline based structure are also important compounds. Alkaloids are usually derivatives of aminoacids, many have a bitter taste and are found as secondary metabolites in plants (including potatoes glycoalkaloids as solanine, solanidine and their derivatives and tomato glycoalkaloids as
tomatine), animals (such as shellfish neurotoxic alkaloids and marine alkaloids; saxitoxin and its analogs), and fungi alkaloids. Many plant and marine based alkaloids are poisonous at dose over, but some are used medicinally as analgesics (pain relievers) or anesthetic, particulary morphine and codeine; some as vinblastine are used to treating certain cancer types. Taxol is an anti-cancer (antineoplastic or cytotoxic) chemotherapy drug and taxol is classified as a plant alkaloid, a taxane and an antimicrotubule agent. As others, phenethylamine alkaloid ephedrine is also used as stimulant, decongestant and appetite suppressant in diet processed foods and nutraceuticals. A specific alkaloids in foods can alter after food processing. In this point; toxicity, carcinogenic,
toxigenic structure and cancer formation should be dealed. Food sensitivity is an adverse reaction to a food which other people can safely eat, and includes food allergies, food intolerances, microbial toxications, and chemical sensitivities, whereas food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by body’s immune system. Foodborne allergic reactions can sometimes cause serious illness and death. Food allergy is a reaction of the body’s immune system to a certain food or beverage. In this context, food allergy is a very specific reaction involving the immune system of the body. At this point, distinguishing food allergy from other food sensitivities is the most important. Whereas food allergies are rare, food intolerances, which are the other classification of food sensitivities, are more prevalent. Several specific foods are responsible for the majority of food allergies, even though any food can stimulate an immune response in allergic individuals. It is known that peanuts are the leading cause of severe allergic reactions, followed by shellfish, fish, tree nuts, and eggs. Peanuts, tree nuts including almonds, brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts (filberts), macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts (pignolias), pistachio nuts, walnuts, sesame seeds, milk, eggs, fish including shellfish and crustaceans, soy, glüten, fava beans, garlic and onion, mustard are some of the most known allergic foods. HHP processing improved the reducing of allergenic structure and allergenicity of some foods. Recently, limited studies have
been performed on HHP effects on the structure of known allergens and the elimination of allergen compounds in foods. Further studies are needed for some allergenic proteins in various food matrices.